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Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Covering an area of 17,125,200 square kilometres , it is the largest country in the world by area, spanning more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, stretching eleven time zones, and bordering 16 sovereign nations. The territory of Russia extends from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south. With 146.7 million inhabitants living in the country's 85 federal subjects, Russia is the most populous nation in Europe and the ninth-most populous nation in the world. Russia's capital and largest city is Moscow; other major urban areas include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Chelyabinsk and Samara. The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. The medieval state of Rus' arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states, until it was finally reunified by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the 15th century. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which became a major European power, and the third-largest empire in history, stretching from Norway on the west to Canada on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian SFSR became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognised superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognised as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the USSR.Following the constitutional crisis of 1993, a new constitution was adopted and Russia has been governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Vladimir Putin became acting president on 31 December 1999 after Russia's first president, Boris Yeltsin, resigned and he was elected president in March 2000. Since then, he has dominated Russia's political system as either president or prime minister. His government has been accused by non-governmental organisations of human rights abuses, authoritarianism and corruption. The Russian economy ranks as the fifth-largest in Europe, the eleventh-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the fifth-largest by PPP. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognised nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of nuclear warheads. Russia is a major great power, as well as a regional power, and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The Russian Armed Forces have been ranked as the world's second most powerful, and the most powerful in Europe. Russia hosts the world's ninth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, at 29, and is among the world's most popular tourist destinations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation , the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation , the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe , the International Investment Bank and the World Trade Organization , as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States , the Collective Security Treaty Organization and a member of the Eurasian Economic Union .

Tula, Russia

Tula, Russia

Tula is the largest city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast in Russia, located 193 kilometers south of Moscow. Tula is located in the north of the Central Russian Upland in Central Russia, on the banks of the Upa River, a tributary of the Oka, 193 km south of Moscow. As of the 2010 Census, Tula had a population of 501,169, and increase from 481,216 in 2002, making it the 32nd largest city in Russia by population. A primarily industrial city, Tula was settled sometime between the 12th and 14th centuries as a fortress at the border of the Principality of Ryazan. The city was seized by Ivan Bolotnikov, and withstood a four-months siege by the Tsar's army. Historically, Tula was a major centre for the manufacture of armaments. The Demidov family built the first armament factory in Russia in the city, in what would become the Tula Arms Plant, which still operates to this day. Tula is home to the Klokovo air base, Tula State University, Tula Kremlin, and The Tula State Museum of Weapons. Tula has a historical association with the samovar, a metal container used to heat and boil water; the city was a major center of Russian samovar production. Yasnaya Polyana, the former home of the writer Leo Tolstoy, is located 12 kilometres southwest of Tula. Additionally, Tula is known for its imprinted gingerbread , which has been made in Tula since the 17th century.

Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod , colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. From 1932 to 1990, it was known as Gorky , after the writer Maxim Gorky, who was born there. The city is an important economic, transportation, scientific, educational and cultural center in Russia and the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, and is the main center of river tourism in Russia. In the historic part of the city there are many universities, theaters, museums and churches. Nizhny Novgorod is located about 400 km east of Moscow, where the Oka River empties into the Volga. Population: 1,250,619 ; 1,311,252 ; 1,438,133 .The city was founded on 4 February 1221 by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir. In 1612 Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky organized an army for the liberation of Moscow from the Poles. In 1817 Nizhny Novgorod became a great trade center of the Russian Empire. In 1896 at a fair, an All-Russia Exhibition was organized. During the Soviet period, the city turned into an important industrial center. In particular, the Gorky Automobile Plant was constructed in this period. Then the city was given the nickname "Russian Detroit". During World War II, Gorky became the biggest provider of military equipment to the Eastern Front. Due to this, the Luftwaffe constantly bombed the city from the air. The majority of the German bombs fell in the area of the Gorky Automobile Plant. Although almost all the production sites of the plant were completely destroyed, the citizens of Gorky reconstructed the factory after 100 days. After the war, Gorky became a "closed city" and remained one until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990. At that time, the city was renamed Nizhny Novgorod once again. In 1985, the Nizhny Novgorod Metro was opened. In 2016, Vladimir Putin opened the new 70th Anniversary of Victory Plant which is part of the Almaz-Antey Air and Space Defence Corporation. The Kremlin – the main center of the city – contains the main government agencies of the city and the Volga Federal District. The demonym for a Nizhny Novgorod resident is "нижегородец" for male or "нижегородка" for female, rendered in English as Nizhegorodian. Novgorodian is inappropriate; it refers to a resident of Veliky Novgorod, in northwestern Russia. Nizhny Novgorod was one of the host cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Altai State University


Altai State University is a coeducational and public research university in Barnaul, Russia. It was established by a decree by Leonid Brezhnev as the first multidisciplinary university in Altai Krai in 1973.Altai State University has the following departments: Arts, Biology, Chemistry, Geography, History, Law, Mathematics and IT, Mass Communication, Philology and Political Science, Physics and Technology, Education and Psychology, Sociology and International Institute of Economics, Management and Informational Systems.The university has affiliates in Biysk, Belokurikha, Rubtsovsk and Slavgorod all in Altai Krai.



Astrakhan is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. The city lies on two banks of the Volga River, close to where it discharges into the Caspian Sea at an altitude of 28 meters below sea level, makes it the lowest city in Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 520,339; up from 504,501 recorded in the 2002 Census and 509,210 recorded in the 1989 Census.The city of Astrakhan forms the core part of the Astrakhan metropolitan area. The oldest economic and cultural center of the Lower Volga, it is often called the southernmost outpost of Russia and the Caspian capital. The city is a member of the Eurasian Regional Office of the World Organization "United Cities and Local Governments" Its population is diverse and includes one hundred ethnicities and fourteen religious denominations.The city is located in the upper part of the Volga delta, on eleven islands of the Caspian Depression. The distance to Moscow by road is 1,411 kilometers . The nearest big city is Volgograd.

Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow


The Cathedral of the Annunciation is a Russian Orthodox church dedicated to the Annunciation of the Theotokos. It is located on the southwest side of Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia, where it connects directly to the main building of the complex of the Grand Kremlin Palace, adjacent to the Palace of Facets. It was originally the personal chapel for the Muscovite tsars, and its abbot remained a personal confessor of the Russian royal family until the early 20th century. Now it also serves as a part of Moscow Kremlin Museums.

Perm Museum of Contemporary Art


Perm Museum of Contemporary Art ) is an art gallery in Perm, Perm Krai, Russia, that officially opened in spring 2009. It holds changing exhibitions, festivals, artist talks, lectures, workshops, concerts and performances. It is housed in a former tram depot at 24 Gagarina Boulevard. Yelena Petrova is its director.Perm Museum of Contemporary Art was devised by and is the legacy of its former founder, director and curator Marat Gelman. Gelman was sacked in June 2013 amid fallout over showing Vasily Slonov's exhibition Welcome! Sochi 2014 that satirised the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Before this, in 2010, the Financial Times praised PERMM as "one of the most spectacular galleries of modern art in Russia."PERMM, Perm State Art Gallery and Perm Krai Museum are situated close to each other and form a museum complex. The museum was previously housed in the former Stalinist ferry building, known as the Perm River Station Hall on the banks of the Kama River but had to move as the building was unsafe.

Pushkin House

Saint Petersburg

The Pushkin House , formally the Institute of Russian Literature , is a research institute in St. Petersburg. It is part of a network of institutions affiliated with the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Anichkov Bridge

Saint Petersburg

The Anichkov Bridge is the oldest and most famous bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The current bridge, built in 1841-42 and reconstructed in 1906-08, combines a simple form with some spectacular decorations. As well as its four famous horse sculptures , the bridge has some of the most celebrated ornate iron railings in Saint Petersburg. The structure is mentioned in the works of Pushkin, Gogol, and Dostoevsky. The first bridge was built in 1715-16 by order of Peter the Great, and named after its engineer, Mikhail Anichkov. The bridge was made of wood with several spans built on piles of supports lying just above the Fontanka River. It was designed by Domenico Trezzini. Nothing remains of this first bridge. As the city grew and river traffic increased, plans were unveiled in 1721 to create a new drawbridge. The Anichkov Bridge was one of seven three-span stone drawbridges with towers built across the Fontanka River in the late 18th century, of which the Lomonosov Bridge and the Stary Kalinkin Bridge are the two still extant. At that time, the Anichkov Bridge was an especially popular attraction on Nevsky Prospekt, as well as a popular subject for illustrations and paintings. By the 1840s the 18th-century design, especially its large towers, was deemed unsuitable for the growing amount of traffic passing over the Anichkov Bridge along Nevsky Prospekt. In 1841-42 a grander structure, more appropriate to the width of Nevsky Prospekt, was built on the site under the supervision of Lt. General A. D. Gotman. The new bridge was made of stone, and had three spans closed off with gently sloping arches. This simple, concise form corresponded well with the massive cast-iron fencing bordering Anichkov Bridge and mermaid cast-iron railings, originally designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel for the Palace Bridge in Berlin. However, the bridge's stone arches were a continual source of problems, and in 1906-08 the bridge had once again to be reconstructed and its arches reinforced.

Apartment Museum of Joseph Brodsky

Saint Petersburg

Apartment Museum of Joseph Brodsky is an informal memorial museum, created in 2006 on behalf of the governor of St. Petersburg, in order to preserve the memory of the cultural and literary period 1960-1990, the central figure of which is the poet and Nobel laureate, Joseph Brodsky. The concept of the future exposition deals Anna Akhmatova Museum. The apartment is in the Muruzi House. The museum formally does no operate because the founders of the museum failed to acquire the whole apartment, therefore it is still in the status of a residential unit.